Money is used for buying or selling goods, for measuring value and for storing wealth. In primitive societies a system of barter was used. Barter was a system of direct exchange of goods. Somebody could exchange a sheep, for example, for anything in the marketplace that he or she considered to be of equal value. Barter, however, was a very unsatisfactory system because people’s precise needs seldom met. People needed a more practical system of exchange, and various money systems developed. Cattle grain, teeth, shells, feathers, skulls, salt, elephant tusks, and tobacco had all been used. Precious metals gradually took over because, when made into coins, they were portable, durable, recognizable, and divisible into larger and smaller units of value.
钱用于购买或销售商品、 测量值和存储的财富。在原始的社会用易货的系统。易货商品直接交流制度。有人可以交换一只羊，例如，在市场上的任何东西他或她应视为同等价值。易货，因为人的确切需要很少得到满足，但是，是很不理想的系统。人们需要一种更实用的系统的交流，和开发各种货币系统。黄牛皮、 牙齿、 贝壳、 羽毛、 头骨、 盐、 象牙和烟草了所有被使用。贵金属逐步接手因为时制成硬币，他们是便携式、 耐用、 辨认，和可分到更大、 更小单位的值。
A coin is a piece of metal, usually disc-shaped, which bears lettering, designs or numbers showing its value. Until the 18th and 19th centuries, coins were given monetary worth based on the exact amount of metal contained in them, but most modern coins are based on face value --- the value that the governments choose in them, which doesn’t show the actual metal content. Coins have been made of gold, silver, copper, aluminum, nickel, lead, zinc, and plastic. Most governments now issue paper money in the form of bills, which are really “promises to pay”. Paper money is easier to handle and more convenient in the modern world. Checks and credit cards are being used increasingly, and it is possible to imagine a world where “money” in the form of coins and paper currency will no longer be used.
一枚硬币是一块金属，通常圆盘形，附有刻字、 设计或显示其值的数字。直到 18 和 19 世纪，硬币得到金钱价值基于金属当中所载的确切数量，但最现代的硬币基于票面价值---政府选择在他们，而不显示实际的金属含量的值。金、 银、 铜、 铝、 镍、 铅、 锌、 塑料方面取得了硬币。大多数国家的政府现在发行纸币的条例草案，这真是承诺支付形式。纸币是现代世界中的处理变得更容易、 更方便。正在越来越多地使用支票和信用卡，它是可以想象的世界将不再使用的纸币和硬币窗体中的'钱'。
1.Barter here means ( C ) Barter 在这里的意思是
A. exchanging goods for money
B. exchanging money goods for
C. exchanging goods for goods物品和物品之间的直接交换。
D. exchanging a sheep for anything in the market
2. Why were precious metals gradually used for making coins? ( D ) 为什么贵金属逐步用于制作硬币?
A. Because they were durable and portable. 因为他们是耐用和便于携带
B. Because they were recognizable. 因为他们是可识别的。
C. Because they were divisible. 因为他们整除。
D. All of the above. 上述都是
3. Coins were given value according to exact amount of metals contained in them ( A ) 硬币给定值根据金属在其中所含的确切数额是在
A. before the 18th and 19th centuries. 18、 19 世纪前
B. after the 18th and 19th centuries. 18、 19 世纪后
C. during the 18th and 19th centuries在 18 和 19 世纪
D. between the 18th and 19th centuries 18、 19 世纪之间
4. “promises to pay” means ( B ) 承诺支付”是指
A.possibilities to pay B.obligations to pay义务支付 C.necessities to pay D.opportunities to pay
5. A world without any money in the form of coins and paper is ( C ). 没有任何钱的硬币和纸张形式的世界是
A.suitable B.necessary C.possible有可能的 D.avoidable
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