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  (2)表明因果联系的动词:result in(结果),result from(因为,由……),follow from(……结果),base…on…(以……为根底),be due to(因为);

  (3)表明因果联系的连词或介词:because,since,for,as,therefore,so,thus, why,with;

  (4)表明因果联系的副词:as a result,consequently等。




  2.文章中细节性的条件联系——一般由一些表明条件联系的词汇手法表达:如 depend upon(取决于),determine(决议)等。


  Where do pesticides(杀虫剂)fit into the picture of environmental disease? We have seen that they now pollute soil, water, and food, that they have the power to make our streams fishless and our gardens and woodlands silent and birdless. Man, however much he may like to pretend the contrary, is part of nature. Can he escape a pollution that is now so thoroughly distributed throughout our world? We know that even single exposures to these chemicals, if the amount is large enough, can cause ex-tremely severe poisoning. But this is not the major problem. The sudden illness or death of farmers, farm workers, and others exposes to sufficient quantities of pesti-cides is very sad and should not occur. For the population as a whole, we must be more concerned with the delayed effects of absorbing small amounts of the pesticides that invisibly pollute our world.

  Responsible public health officials have pointed out that the biological effects of chemicals are cumulative(堆集的)over long periods of time, and that the danger to the individual may depend on the sum of the exposures received throughout his life-time. For these very reasons the danger is easily ignored. It is human nature to shake off what may seem to us a threat of future disaster. "Men are naturally mo.st impressed by diseases which have obvious signs,"says a wise physician, Dr. Rene Dubos, "yet some of their worst enemies slowly approach them unnoticed. "

  People tend to ignore the delayed effects of exposure to chemicals because

  A. limited exposure to them does little harm to people's health

  B. the present is more important for them than the future

  C. the danger does not become apparent immediately

  D. humans are capable of withstanding small amounts of poisoning

  这道题考点触及缘由。假如阅览时圈划了有关因果联系提示词,这道题就对比简单做了。因果联系提示词在第二段第二句:For these very reasons the danger is easily ignored.由此可知本段的前部为答案地点:化学成品的生物效果是长时间堆集的结果;化学成品对人损害的巨细取决于人一生中接纳的剂量的多少。C项:“化学成品的损害没有当即显现出来”表达的恰是这个意思,所所以准确答案。


  It is likely that the dispute regarding flats versus(对,对立)individual houses will continue to rage on for a long time as far as Britain is concerned. And it is unfortunate that there should be hot feelings on both sides whenever this subject is raised. Those who oppose the building of flats base their case primarily on the assumption(想象)that everyone prefers an individual home and garden and on the high cost per unit of accommodation. The latter ignores the higher cost of providing full services to a scat- tered community and the cost in both money and time of the journeys to work for the suburban resident.

  Some people oppose the building of flats because

  A. the living expenses for each individual family are higher

  B. it involves higher cost compared with the building of houses

  C. they believe people like to live in houses with gardens

  D. the disposal of rubbish remains a problem for those living in flats

  这道题考点相同触及缘由。依据题干中的要害词组0ppose the building of flats定位到富含缘由表达法(base…on,意为“以……为依据”)的有关句:Those who oppose the building of flats base their case primarily on the assumption(想象)that everyone prefers an individual home and garden and on the high cost per unit of accommodation.对立建公寓的人最首要的依据是,大家都喜爱独居于带花园的住宅中,由此可知C项为准确答案。


  Even plants can run a fever, especially when they're under attack by insects or disease. But unlike humans, plants can have their temperature taken from 3,000 feet away -- straight up. A decade ago, adapting the infrared(红外线)scanning technolo-gy developed for military purposes and other satellites, physicist Stephen Paley came up with a quick way to take the temperature of crops to determine which ones are un-der stress. The goal was to let farmers precisely target pesticide(杀虫剂)spraying rather than rain poison on a whole field, which invariably includes plants that don't have pest(害虫)problems.

  Even better, Paley's Remote Scanning Services Company could detect crop prob-lems before they became visible to the eye. Mounted on a plane flown at 3,000 feet at night, an infrared scanner measured the heat emitted by crops. The data were trans- formed into a color-coded map showing where plants were running "fevers". Farmers could then spot-spray, using 50 to 70 percent less pesticide than they otherwise would.

  The bad news is that Paley's company closed down in 1984, after only three years. Farmers resisted the new technology and long-term backers were hard to find.

  But with the renewed concern about pesticides on produce, and refinements in infrared scanning, Paley hopes to get back into operation. Agriculture experts have no doubt the technology works. "This technique can be used on 75 percent of agricultural land in the United States, " says George Oerther of Texas A&M. Ray Jackson, who re- cently retired from the Department of Agriculture, thinks remote infrared crop scan- ning could be adopted by the end of the decade. But only if Paley finds the financial backing which he failed to obtain 10 years ago.

  Infrared scanning technology may be brought back into operation because of

  A. the desire of farmers to improve the quality of their produce

  B. growing concern about the excessive use of pesticides on crops

  C. the forceful promotion by the Department of Agriculture

  D. full support from agriculture experts

  依据题干中的要害词组“brought back into operation”找到原文有关句:But with the renewed concern about pesticides on produce, and refinements in infrared scan—ning, Paley hopes to get back into operation.可是跟着大家从头关注杀虫剂对农产品的影响,以及红外线扫描技能的改善,Paley希望能重操旧业。由此能够推出B项为准确答案。这个考点与有关句中的缘由状语(以with引导)相联系。


  The application of infrared scanning technology to agriculture met with some diffi-culties due to

  A. the lack of official support

  B. its high cost

  C. the lack of financial support

  D. its failure to help increase production


  话:榜首句话说到将红外线扫描技能运用于农业遇到困难——Paley的公司于l984年封闭,第二句话叙说了其间的缘由:Farmers:resisted the new technology and long—term backers were hard to find.农场主们抵抗这项新技能,并且难以找到(投资方面的)长时间支持者。由此可知C项为准确答案。


  For every course that he follows a student is given a grade, which is recorded, and the record is available for the student to show to prospective employers. All this impo- ses a constant pressure and strain of work, but in spite of this some students still find time for great activity in student affairs. Elections to positions in student organizations arouse much enthusiasm. The effective work of maintaining discipline is usually per- formed by students who advise the academic authorities. Any student who is thought to have broken the rules, for example, by cheating has to appear before a student court. With the enormous numbers of students, the operation of the system does in- volve a certain amount of activity. A student who has held one of these positions of au- thority is much respected and it will be of benefit to him later in his career.

  American university students are usually under pressure of work because

  A. their academic performance will affect their future careers

  B. they are heavily involved in student affairs

  C. they have to observe university discipline

  D.they want to run for positions of authority

  本题问的是美国大学生一般接受压力的缘由。有关句在前两句话——第二句指出:All this imposes a constant pressure and strain of work…这一切给学生形成继续的压力和严重……,由此可知缘由在前一句:For every course that he follows a student is given a grade,which is recorded,and the record is available for the student to show to prospective employers.学生上的每门课都有一个分数挂号在册,而分数能够由学生拿给将来雇主看。A:“其学业体现会影响其将来的作业”与上句“分数能够由学生拿给将来雇主看(由其决议是不是选用)”意思共同,为准确答案。榜首句和第二句之间为因果联系(榜首句为因,第二句为果),但没有因果联系提示词,依然变成考点,这种先因结果(无提示词)的构造值得考生留意。

  Some students are enthusiastic for positions in student organizations probably because

  A. they hate the constant pressure and strain of their study

  B. they will then be able to stay longer in the university

  C. such positions help them get better jobs

  D. such positions are usually well paid

  第三句谈到有些学生热衷于在学生安排中任职:Elections tO positions in student organizations arouse much enthusiasm.接着评论了任职学生的效果,最终才说到了学生热衷于任职的缘由:A student who has held one of these positions of authority is much respected and it will be of benefit tO him later in his career.任职的学生受人敬重,并在将来作业中获益,由此可知C为准确答案。


  The reason these two wonders of nature are so difficult for many adults to explain to children is that they are not very well understood by adults themselves. For exam-ple, did you know that the lightning we see flashing down to the earth from a cloud is actually flashing up to a cloud from the earth? Our eyes trick us into thinking we see a downward motion when it's actually the other way around. But then, if we believed only what we think we see, we'd still insist that the sun rises in the morning and sets at night.

  We believe that lightning is a downward motion because

  A. we were taught so by our parents from our childhood

  B. we are deceived by our sense of vision

  C. it is a common natural phenomenon

  D. it is a truth proved by science

  这依然是测验隐性缘由的一道考题,思路是在有关结果邻近找有关缘由。议论“downward motion”的有关句为第三句:0ur eyes trick US into thinking we see a downward motion when it'S actually the other way around.由此可知大家认为闪电由上向下运动,是因为被视觉所骗,因而B项为准确答案。



  After the violent earthquake that shook Los Angeles in 1994, earthquake scien-tists had good news to report: The damage and death toll(逝世人数)could have been much worse. More than 60 people died in this earthquake. By comparison, an earthquake of similar intensity that shook America in 1988 claimed 25,000 victims. Injuries and deaths were relatively less in Los Angeles because the quake occurred at 4 : 31 a.m. on a holiday; when traffic was light on the city's highways. In addition, changes made to the construction codes in Los Angeles during the last 20 years have strengthened the city's buildings and highways, making them more resistant to quakes. Despite the good news, civil engineers aren't resting on their successes. Pinned to their drawing boards are blue prints(规划)for improved quake-resistant buildings. The new designs should offer even greater security to cities where earthquakes often take place. In the past, making structures quake-resistant meant firm yet flexible materials, such as steel and wood, that bend without breaking. Later, people tried to lift a build- ing off its foundation, and insert rubber and steel between the building and its founda- tion to reduce the impact of ground vibrations. The most recent designs give buildings brains as well as concrete and steel supports. Called smart buildings, the structures respond like living organisms to an earthquake's vibrations. When the ground shakes and the building tips forward, the computer would force the building to shift in the op- posite direction. The new smart structures could be very expensive to build. However, that wouldsave many lives and would be less likely to be damaged during earthquakes.

  One reason why the loss of lives in the Los Angeles earthquake was comparatively low is that

  A. new computers had been installed in the buildings

  B. it occurred in the residential areas rather than on the highways

  C. large numbers of Los Angeles residents had gone for a holiday

  D. improvements had been made in the construction of buildings and highways



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